Skip to main content

Synthesis of Sentences | Rules with Examples | HSLC English Grammar

Synthesis of Sentences means joining, combining or putting together of a number of sentences into one new sentence. There are several ways of combining two or more sentences into one new sentence. Some such ways of combining sentences are as follows:

Almost all examples here are based on questions asked in SEBA Class 10 HSLC Examinations and are collected from RG's Question Bank.

Also Read Here

Class 10 Synthesis of Sentences Solved



1. Simple Sentence: Combining two or more simple sentences into one simple sentence:


A. By Using a Present Participle:


I. A man was running away. We saw the man.

We saw a man running away.

II. The tiger saw the hunter. Then it ran away.

Seeing the hunter, the tiger ran away.

III. He saw a tiger. He ran away.

Seeing a tiger, he ran away.

IV. He entered the museum. He was very happy.

Entering the museum, he was very happy.

V. I reached home. I went to meet my mother.

Reaching home, I went to meet my mother.

VI. I speak the truth. I am not afraid of it.

I am not afraid of speaking the truth.

VII. He was sincere in his studies. He stood first in the examination.

Being sincere in his studies, he stood first in the examination.

VIII. He was ill. He could not attend school.

Being ill, he could not attend school.

IX. He was tired. He sat down to take a rest.

Being tired, he sat down to take a rest.



B. By Using a Past Participle:


I. I found my book. It was lost.

I found my lost book.

II. He bought a table. It was broken.

He bought a broken table.

III. I met a man. He was learned.

I met a learned man.

IV. His speech was inspiring. I was moved by it.

I was moved by his inspiring speech.

V. He was fed up with the job. He resigned.

Fed up with the job, he resigned.



C. By Using a Perfect Participle:


I. He snatched my mobile. He boarded a running bus.

Having snatched my mobile, he boarded a running bus.

II. The man had locked the door. He went out.

Having locked the door, he went out.

III. The hunter looked over the rock. He saw the man eater.

Having looked over the rock, he saw the man eater.

IV. He did the work. He left the place.

Having done the work, he left the place.

V. He received the news. He started for home.

Having received the news, he started for home.

VI. I finished the work. I was taking a rest.

Having finished the work, I was taking a rest.



D. By using an infinitive:


I. You can start this machine. You have to press this button.

You have to press this button to start this machine.

II. You turn these knobs. You can then open the box.

You have to turn these knobs to open the box.

III. I have some duties. I must perform them.

I have some duties to perform.

IV. She opened the cage. She let the bird fly away.

She opened the cage to let the bird fly away.

V. I can't buy a car. I don't have the money.

I don't have the money to buy a car.

VI. The bird was very small. It could not fly.

The bird was too small to fly.

VII. He is very weak. He cannot move.

He is too weak to move.

VIII. The box is very heavy. I cannot lift it.

The box is too heavy for me to lift it.

IX. He has many sons. He has to educate them.

He has many sons to educate.

X. The stick is very short. It cannot reach the ceiling.

The stick is too short to reach the ceiling.



E. By Using an Absolute Phrase:


I. The sun set. We went home.

The sun having set, we went home.

II. The police arrived. The thief fled.

The police having arrived, the thief fled.

III. The programme was over. We returned home.

The programme being over, we returned home.

IV. Dinner was over. We left the place.

Dinner being over, we left the place.




F. By using an Adverb or an Adverbial phrase:


I. He will pass. There is no doubt about it.

Undoubtedly he will pass.

II. He died young. It was unfortunate.

Unfortunately he died young.

III. He returned home. It was evening at the time.

He returned home in the evening.

IV. He came back. It was morning.

He came back in the morning.




G. By using a Noun or a Noun Phrase in Apposition:


I. Robin is my friend. He is a journalist.

Robin, my friend, is a journalist.

II. My uncle built this bridge. He is an engineer in the PWD.

My uncle, an engineer in the PWD, built this bridge.

III. Alexander was the king of Macedonia. He invaded India.

Alexander, the king of Macedonia, invaded India.




H. By using a preposition with a Noun or a Gerund:


I. He insisted. I should go there.

He insisted on my going there.

II. Father bought a pen. He bought it for me.

Father bought a pen for me.

III. I speak the truth. I am not afraid of it.

I am not afraid of speaking the truth.

IV. The rain had stopped. We arrived.

The rain had stopped before our arrival.

V. He walked on. He did not take a rest.

He walked on without rest.




I. By Using an Adjective:


I. He brought the news. The news was not true.

He brought the false news.

II. He gifted me with a pen. Its colour was red.

He gifted me with a red pen.

III. He bought a dress. It was costly.

He bought a costly dress.




J. By Using the Conjunction 'And':


I. I went there. I met him.

I went there and met him.

II. I bought a house. I bought a car.

I bought a house and a car.

III. Rita came. Her brother came.

Rita and her brother came.




2. Complex Sentence: Two or more simple sentences can be combined into a complex sentence in the following ways:


A. By Using a Noun Clause:


I. You insulted him. This is his complaint.

His complaint is that you insulted him.

II. The earth is round. We can prove it.

We can prove that the earth is round.

III. We should drop the plan. That is my suggestion.

My suggestion is that we should drop the plan.

IV. He was innocent. He wanted to prove it.

He wanted to prove that he was innocent.

V. He is innocent. Everybody says this.

Everybody says that he is innocent.

VI. The moon is round. It has been proved.

It has been proved that the moon is round.

Or

That the moon is round has been proved.

VII. Man is mortal. Everybody knows this.

Everybody knows that man is mortal.

VIII. You were ill. I did not know it.

I did not know that you were ill.

IX. He said something. I could not understand it.

I could not understand what he said.

X. He is honest. It is known to all.

It is known to all that he is honest.

Or

That he is honest is known to all.




B. By Using an Adjective Clause:


I. A boy said this. I know the boy.

I know the boy who said this.

II. I have lost the pen. You gave it to me.

I have lost the pen that you gave me.

III. They live in a village. It is six miles away.

They live in a village which is six miles away.

IV. She sang a song. Everybody liked it.

Everybody liked the song she sang.

V. I know the boy. The boy stood first.

I know the boy who stood first.

VI. The one horned rhino is regarded as a rare animal. It is found only in Assam.

The one horned rhino which is regarded as a rare animal is found only in Assam.

VII. I know the boy. You helped him yesterday.

I know the boy whom you helped yesterday.

VIII. This is the boy. He stood first in the class.

This is the boy who stood first in the class.

IX. My uncle is a novelist. Do you know him?

Do you know my uncle who is a novelist?

X. The businessman is a miser. He has donated generously today.

The businessman who donated generously today is a miser.

XI. The man created the trouble. He was arrested by the police.

The man who created the trouble was arrested by the police.




C. By Using an Adverbial Clause:


I. Where has he gone? Do you know it?

Do you know where he has gone?

II. What are you making? Let me see.

Let me see what you are making.

III. I have seen you somewhere. I can't remember where.

I can't remember where I have seen you.

IV. The rain will stop. Let us wait till then.

Let us wait till the rain stops.

V. Where does he live? Do you know it?

Do you know where he lives?

VI. Why are you so late? Tell me.

Tell me why you are so late.

VII. Walk fast. You will miss the train.

Unless you walk fast, you will miss the train.

VIII. The bird was very small. It could not fly.

The bird was so small that it could not fly.

IX. Health is very important. It must not be neglected.

Health is so important that it must not be neglected.

X. He was poor. He was honest.

Though he was poor, he was honest.

XI. Speak the truth. Then I shall pardon you.

If you speak the truth, I shall pardon you.

XII. The box is very heavy. I can not lift it.

The box is so heavy that I can not lift it.

XIII. He tried hard. He failed in the examination.

Though he tried hard, he failed in the examination.

XIV. He is very weak. He cannot move.

He is so weak that he cannot move.

XV. The man is sitting. He is tired.

The man is sitting as he is tired.

XVI. He is rich. He is not happy.

Though he is rich, he is not happy.

XVII. She ran into the room. She was afraid.

She ran into the room as she was afraid.




3. Compound Sentence: Two or more simple sentences can be combined into a compound sentence in the following ways:


A. By Using a Coordinate Conjunction:


I. Don't overeat. You will be ill.

Don't overeat or you will be ill.

II. He is not sincere. He is not honest.

He is neither sincere nor honest.

III. Walk fast. You will miss the train.

Walk fast or you will miss the train.

IV. He is not intelligent. He is not brave.

He is neither intelligent nor brave.

V. He was poor. He was honest.

He was not only poor but also honest.

VI. He is hardworking. He is also intelligent.

He is not only hardworking but also intelligent.

Or

He is both hardworking and intelligent.

VII. The man is not educated. He is not intelligent either.

The man is neither educated nor intelligent.

VIII. She is not intelligent. She is not sincere.

She is neither intelligent nor sincere.

IX. The baby walked. The mother walked along.

Both the baby and the mother walked along.

X. We must read attentively. We will fail in the examination.

We must read attentively or we will fail in the examination.

XI. He is rich. He is not happy.

He is rich but not happy.

XII. He saw me. I got off the bus.

He saw me while I was getting off the bus.

XIII. He was a leader. He was a great hero.

He was not only a leader but also a great hero.

I returned home early yesterday. I could not sleep.

I returned home early yesterday but could not sleep.



The rules for combining sentences discussed above only serve as a guide. In the practical field, we may have to use more than one rule at a time to combine sentences. Sometimes there may be a combination of sentences by methods not discussed above.

Comments